People who were raised in a positive home environment with a stable family want to create that life with their significant each other. They want to create a family that is full of joy and love where they can be affectionate towards their children. There are plenty of people out there who want to carry on the family name and the family values. They find joy in knowing that their child will bear their last name and keep the family going. But it doesn’t mean there are no obstacles for parents to having children, and the most common problem is infertility.

Infertility is a multidimensional problem with social, economic and cultural implications, which can take threatening proportions in countries with strong demographic problems. Studies suggest that after 1 year of having unprotected sex, 15% of couples are unable to conceive, and after 2 years, 10% couples still have not had a successful pregnancy. In couples younger than age 30 who are generally healthy, 20% to 37% are able to conceive in the first 3 months.

Male Infertility
Infertility defined as clinically problem in women and men who cannot achieve pregnancy after 1 year of having intercourse without using birth control, and in women who have two or more failed pregnancies. Many different medical conditions and other factors can contribute to fertility problems, and an individual case may have a single cause, several causes, or no identifiable cause. Overall, one-third of infertility cases are caused by male reproductive issues, one-third by female reproductive issues, and one-third by both male and female reproductive issues or by unknown factors.

To conceive a child, a man’s sperm must combine with a woman’s egg. The testiscles make and store sperm, and the most common issues that lead to infertility in men are problems that affect how the testicles work. Other problems are hormone imbalances or blockages in the male reproductive organs. In about 50% of cases, the cause of male infertility cannot be determined.

A complete lack of sperm occurs in about 10% to 15% of men who are infertile. A hormone imbalance or blockage of sperm movement can cause a lack of sperm. In some cases of infertility, a man produces less sperm than normal. The most common cause of this condition is varicocele, an enlarged vein in the testicle. Varicocele is present in about 40% of men with infertility problems.

Common Signs of Infertility in Men

1. Changes in Sexual Desire
A man’s infertility is also linked with his hormone health. Changes in virility, often governed by hormones, could indicate issues with fertility.

2. Pain or Swelling; Small and Firm Testicles
There are several different conditions that could lead to pain or swelling in testicles, many of which could contribute to infertility.

Problems with making healthy sperm are the most common causes of male infertility. Anything that blocks the genital tract can stop the flow of semen. This could be a genetic or birth defect. Infection or inflammation from sexually transmitted disease can also block semen. Small or firm testicles could indicate potential issues that should be explored by a medical practitioner.

3. Problems Maintaining Erection
A man’s ability to maintain an erection is often linked to his hormone levels. Reduced hormones may result, which could potentially translate into trouble conceiving.

4. Issues with Ejaculation
Other factors may include erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. Liver or kidney disease, or treatment for seizure disorders are examples of problems that can cause infertility. An inability to ejaculate is a sign that it might be time to visit a doctor.

5. Sperm Disorders
Sperm may be immature, abnormally shaped, or unable to swim. In some cases, you may not have enough sperm or you may not make any sperm. This problem may be caused by many different conditions, including:
• Infections or inflammatory conditions. One example is infection with the mumps virus after puberty
• Hormone or pituitary gland problems
• Immune problems in which you make antibodies against your own sperm
• Environmental and lifestyle factors. These include tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, use of drugs or steroids, or exposure to toxins
• Genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis or hemochromatosis


Role of Stress and Antioxidants
Stress is a prominent part of any society and infertility itself is stressful, due to social pressures, testing, diagnosis, treatments, failures, unfulfilled desires and even economic costs with which it is associated. Semen parameters may be potentially linked to stress, whose presence may reduce luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone pulsing, thus reducing in turn spermatogenesis and sperm quality.

A new emerging role in the male infertility management is the use of antioxidants. They are molecules such as Astaxanthin and Selenium. Antioxidants help to remove ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) in the seminal ejaculate and assist in the conversion of ROS to compounds that are less detrimental to cells. If there is abundancy of ROS than the local antioxidants, it can increase oxidative stress thus impairing sperm protein, lipid, and DNA damage and sperm dysfunction.

Astaxanthin is a xanthophylls carotenoid which is found in various microorganisms and marine animals. Some of the studies reported that Astaxanthin has more potent biological activity than other carotenoids. For dietary supplement in humans and animals, Astaxanthin is obtained from seafood or extracted from H.pluvialis. The consumption of Astaxanthin can prevent or reduce risk of various disorders in humans and animals.

Selenium is incorporated into selenoproteins that have a wide range of pleiotropic effects, ranging from antioxidant and anti inflammatory effects to the production of active thyroid hormone. Low selenium status has been associated with increased risk of mortality, poor immune function, and cognitive decline. Selenium status is essential for successful male and female reproduction, and reduces the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease.

Infertility Prevention

Many types of male infertility aren’t preventable. However you can avoid some known causes of male infertility. For example:

- Don’t smoke

- Limit or abstain from alcohol

- Steer clear of illicit drugs

- Don’t get a vasectomy

- Avoid things that lead to prolonged heat for the testicles

- Reduce stress

- Take antioxidant supplement


PT. SIMEX PHARMACEUTICAL INDONESIA as one of the pharmaceutical companies in Indonesia presents ASTAPLUS products as an antioxidant supplements which contain Astaxanthin and Selenium. Astaxanthin and Selenium supplement can help you to maintain healthy body from oxidative stress.