Upload Date: 8 February 2021

The human intestinal microbiota is made up of trillions of microorganisms, most of which are of bacterial origin that are considered to be non-pathogenic. The microbiota functions in tandem with the host’s defenses and the immune system to protect against pathogen colonization and invasion. It also performs an essential metabolic function, acting as a source of essential nutrients and vitamins, and aiding in the extraction of energy and nutrients, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and amino acids, from food. Ultimately, the host depends on its intestinal microbiota for a number of vital functions and thus the intestinal microbiota may contribute to health.

Alterations in the microbiota can result from exposure to various environmental factors, including diet, toxins, drugs, and pathogens. Of these, enteric pathogens have the greatest potential to cause microbial dysbiosis as seen in experimental animal models, where foodborne viral pathogens can trigger both local and systemic inflammation altering the composition of the microbiota and barrier function, as a mechanism for developing auto-immunity.

There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. In many of these conditions, the mechanisms leading to disease development involves the pivotal mutualistic relationship between the colonic microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host immune system.

A dysbiosis can be defined as a reduction in microbial diversity, combination of the loss of beneficial bacteria, and increase pro-inflammatory species. The imbalanced microbiota is unable to protect from pathogenic organisms that can trigger inflammation and produce genotoxins or carcinogenic metabolites. This imbalance could be due to the gain or loss community members or changes in relative abundance of microbes.

Moreover, during obesity and its associated comorbidities, the composition of gut microbiota and intestinal epithelial barrier function are altered.
Any interruption in the balance of microbiota can cause dysbiosis. When dysbiosis happens in your GI tract, it’s typically the result of:
• a dietary change that increases your intake of protein, sugar, or food additives
• accidental chemical consumption, such as lingering pesticides on unwashed fruit
• drinking two or more alcoholic beverages per day
• new medications, such as antibiotics, that affect your gut flora
• poor dental hygiene, which allows bacteria to grow out of balance in your mouth
• high levels of stress or anxiety, which can reduce your immune system

Symptoms of Dysbiosis
Your symptoms will depend on where the bacteria imbalance develops. They may also vary based on the types of bacteria that are out of balance, for example:
1. Local
Bloating, flatus, spasms, inflammation with loss of intestinal permeability, and dysplasia of mucosal surface.
2. Immune
Production of antigen – antibody complexes in response to translocated chemical moieties of partial digested food.
3. Systemic
a. Aggravation of disorders in which inflammation is a key mechanism: migraine, arthrosis, arthritis, autoimmune disorders, etc.
b. Central nervous system changes: irritability, mood changes, anxiety, etc
c. Inflammation of endocrine glands with altered adaptation capability.

Dysbiosis as a risk factor for certain diseases
Dysbiosis has been identified as playing a possible role with a variety of health problems. What this role might be is not always clear. It is theorized that the balance of gut bacteria can affect the immune system and the health of the gut by increased intestinal permeability. Dysbiosis has been shown to be closely associated with certain diseases and conditions, including:
• IBS (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
• Gut disease, such as colitis
• Candida, a type of yeast infection
• Celiac disease
• Diabetes mellitus
• Obesity
• Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
• Skin conditions, such as eczema
• Liver disease
• Heart disease or heart failure
• Late-onset dementia
• Parkinson’s disease
• Cancer in your colon or rectum

Improving Gut Health
Dysbiosis can be improved through improved dietary and lifestyle habits, such as eating a balanced, nutritious diet and engaging in mind / body techniques for stress management. The research on the relationship between gut dysbiosis and our health is still in preliminary stages, although it is rapidly expanding. As for now, there are treatment options that have received some research support for improving state of dysbiosis that is probiotics.


The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) have defined probiotics as “live microorganisms that confer a beneficial effect on the health of the host when administered in adequate amounts”. Probiotic organisms must be safe, effective, maintain their effectiveness and potency for the duration of the shelf-life of the product.

The most widely used probiotic organisms belong to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacteria genera, with Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium being the most extensively studied. A rapidly growing body of evidence supports the use of probiotics have been shown to improve the intestinal barrier, stimulate the immune system, and produce antibacterial effects, alongside modulating intestinal motility and reducing visceral pain, which may contribute to probiotic’s effectiveness.

In vitro studies also indicate that probiotic bacteria suppress the growth of microbial pathogens by (1) directly producing antimicrobial factors; (2) stimulating the host’s cell to produce their own antimicrobial factors; and (3) lowering the intestinal pH via release of short chain fatty acids (SFCAs) from epithelial cells. Probiotic bacteria are also able to interfere with cell-to-cell signaling molecules that allow pathogen bacteria to communicate.

From the perspective of inflammation reduction, probiotics have been shown both to stimulate host production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppress production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Multistrain and Multispecies Probiotics
A monostrain probiotic is defined as containing one strain of a certain species and consequently multistrain probiotics contain more than one strain of the same species or, at least of the same genus. Multispecies probiotics is used for preparations containing strains that belong to one or preferentially more genera.

Functionality of a multistrain and multispecies probiotics could be more effective and more consistent than that of a monostrain probiotic.
Dysbiosis Prevention
• Only take antibiotics under your doctor’s supervision.
• Drink less alcohol or avoid it altogether, as it can interrupt the balance of bacteria in your gut.
• Brush and floss every day to prevent bacteria from growing out of control in your mouth.
• Consume probiotic regularly.

MAXBIOTIK® is the solution for your gut health. MAXBIOTIK® as multistrain and multispecies probiotics supplement containing Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Bifidobacterium lactis W52, Lactobacillus acidophilus W55, Lactobacillus casei W56, Lactobacillus salivarius W57, Lactococcus lactis W58 with total colony bacteria ≥ 5 x 108 cfu/g. Multistrain and multispecies probiotic could be more effective and more consistent than that of a monostrain probiotic.


• Carding S., Verbeke K., Vipond DT., et.al. 2015. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease. Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease 2015, 26: 26191
• https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/dysbiosis
• https://www.healthline.com/health/digestive-health/dysbiosis#causes-and-risk-factors
• https://atlasbiomed.com/blog/dysbiosis-and-microbiome-testing/
• https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-intestinal-dysbiosis-1945045
• Bull MJ., Plummer NT. 2015. Part 2: Treatments for Chronic Gastrointestinal Disease and Gut Dysbiosis. Integrative Medicine, Vol.14, No.1.
• Timmerman HM., Koning CJM., Mulder L., et.al. 2004. Monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics – A comparison of functionality and efficacy. International Journal of Food Microbiology 96 (2004) 219-233