Healthy body is the most important things in every body’s life. Implementation of healthy body is often shown through a variety of activities carried out optimally. When a person has an unhealthy condition, environmental conditions are defined as the main factor of caused it. Otherwise the body can’t maintain its condition remain prime. To achieve a prime condition of body is needed various factors and one of them as a main factor is the immune system.
Immune system is the body protection mechanism to against outside biologically influences by identification and killing the pathogenic microorganisms. The combination of cells, molecules and tissues used in the phagocytic process of pathogenic microorganisms is called the immune system. If the immunity is working properly, the microorganism will be hard to multiply and give the bad impact for body. But if the body’s immune system is weak, that microorganism including virus easily to attack the body. Generally, the immune system can be classified into 2 parts that is specific and non-specific immune systems.
1. Non-specific immune system
This immune system is often called the natural body defense system because it has been obtained since human beings were born. This immune system is the body’s first defense to against for entry of pathogenic microorganisms. The weakness of this system can’t recognize pathogenic microorganisms specifically. Included in this system are skin, saliva, tears, mucous membranes, coughing and sneezing, phagocytocic and NK (Natural Killer) cells.
2. Specific immune system
The specific immune system is a defense which can to recognize pathogenic microorganisms specifically. When pathogenic microorganisms enter the body, the immune system will record immediately the microorganisms so when infected with the same microorganisms for next day, this immune system already recognizes the specifics quickly and will take appropriate action to destroy it. Included in this system are B cells and T cells. The differences both of them are T cells destroy the antigen in the cell while B cells destroy in the liquid between cells.
The body is inseparable from various environmental exposures every day. Environmental exposures often have bad effects for health such as infection of the upper respiratory tract due to exposure to air pollution or motor vehicle fumes. Infection is a process of invasion and multiplication of various pathogenic microorganisms in the body, when under normal condition, these microorganisms are not present in the body. One of the infectious microorganisms is virus. Viruses are microorganisms that comprise a capsid to protect the genetic material (consisting of DNA or RNA). The virus is harmful because it cannot live without sticking for the host and then virus would take over the cell host and breeds itself so that attack the other host cells. Most viruses are picky because they attack specific cells for example viruses which attack specific cells in the pancreas, respiratory organs, blood and other organs or tissues in the body. When the virus replicates itself, it can cause disruption to the host bodies and finally make infectious diseases and usually contagious.
The disease caused by viral infection is very much, but in this article will be discussed diseases that are often encountered as follows:
1. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
AIDS is a disease caused by the decrease in the immune system. It caused by infection with the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). HIV causes the number of immune cells to be under the limits, so mild illnesses such as influenza and diarrhea can be a deadly disease. Based on KEMENKES at 2017 mention that since found in 1987 until march 2016, AIDS patient have spread in 80% districts/cities in Indonesia with cumulative number of AIDS patient until march 2017 as many as 87.453 peoples. In addition, most people with AIDS are people with productive age (20-40 years).
Polio is a disease that attacks the nervous system causing a person difficult to breathing and paralysis of the body. It caused by infection with Polivirus or Poliomyelitis. The virus is easy to attack a toddler who did not get polio vaccination in the months after birth.
Smallpox caused by smallpox virus. This virus infects humans through the upper respiratory tract and spreads through the blood. This virus puts itself in the blood vessels under the skin, mouth and throat. In the skin of this disease causes a macropapular shaped rash and then form a bubbles filled with fluid skin. Transmission of smallpox can be through direct contact with the source of infection.
Rabies disease or mad dog disease is caused by rhabdovirus. This virus attacks the central nervous system of the patient. The rabies virus can be transmitted through the bite of an infected animal.
5. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)
Dengue disease caused by Tagovirus (Flavirus) and is a type of dengue virus. The virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This viral infection can cause a decrease in the number of platelet levels in the patient’s body. Patients who have been severe will experience bleeding in the organs of the body that result in death.
Influenza disease is caused by infection by influenza virus A, B and C. This disease affects the respiratory tract and can also cause heart problems and other body parts. This type of virus is one type of virus that many have genetic mutation so that there are several variations such as bird flu or avian influenza (H5N1), swine flu (H1N1) and others.
Based on the management of illness due to viral infections, antiviral is the right medicine as therapy viral infection. But the use of antivirus as mono therapy is less precise because antivirus just kill the virus and cannot be used as a prophylactic action (prevention of disease due to viral infection). Based on that, immunomodulator as antiviral adjunctive therapy is important treatment. Immunomodulator is a compound that can increase the immune system. In maintaining immunity, immunomodulators will affect the type and amount of the immune system either specific or non-specific. Immunomodulator are also differentiated based on raw material source such as natural immunomodulator and chemical immunomodulator. And one example of a chemical immunomodulator is Methisoprinol.
PT SIMEX PHARMACEUTICAL INDONESIA as one of the pharmaceutical companies in Indonesia presenting MAXPRINOL products that containing Methisoprinol as a enhancer of the body’s immune system. The research has shown that methisoprinol can improve the body’s immune system likely the increase of proliferation of T lymphocytes, Natural Killer (NK), Interleukin (IL) cell activity and cytokine production as to prevent body infection and help expedite the healing of viral infections. In addition MAXPRINOL is also presented in two forms of dosage form of tablets suitable for adult as well as the form of syrup with strawberry flavor is favored by children.
In conclusion, MAXPRINOL is a right choice and clinically proven as an immune system enhancer can be used for prevention and adjunctive therapy in viral infectious diseases.
- Bratawidjaja G.K., 2006. Imunologi Dasar. Fakultas kedokteran Universitas Indonesia. p.6-27.